Efficient Sampling Methods for Machine Learning Error Models with application to Surrogates of Steady Hypersonic Flows

Elizabeth H. Krath, David S. Ching and Patrick J. Blonigan

AIAA 2022-1249

This paper presents an investigation into sampling strategies for reducing the computational expense of creating error models for steady hypersonic flow surrogate models. The error model describes the quantity of interest error between a reduced-order model prediction and a full-order model solution.

The sampling strategies are separated into three categories: distinct training sets, single training set, and augmented single training set for the reduced-order model and the error model. Using a distinct training set, three sampling strategies are investigated: latin hypercube sampling, latin hypercube sampling with a maximin criterion, and a D-Optimal design.

It was found that using a D-Optimal design was the most effective at producing an accurate error model with the fewest number of training points. When using a single training set, the leave-one-out cross validation approach was used on the D-Optimal design training set. This produced an error model with an R-squared value of greater than 0.8, but it had some outliers due to high nonlinearities in the space.

Augmenting the training points of the error model helped improve its accuracy. Using a D-Optimal design with distinct training sets cut the computational cost of creating the error model by 15% and using the LOOCV approach with the D-Optimal design cut the cost by 64%.